Friday, September 30, 2022


 Module 1:

Inference – Problems in non-experimental science – Criteria for model specification.

Module 2:

Consumer behaviour – Derivation of demand functions and theoretical restrictions –

Specification and estimation of demand functions – Elasticities – Engel curve.

Module 3:

Producer’s behaviour: Specification and estimation of production function – CobbDouglas, Translog and CES production function – Measurement of partial and total factor


Module 4:

Identification – Market model – Simple Keynesian model – Estimation and testing.

Module 5:

Economic forecasting – Methods of forecasting – Limitations.

Module 6:

Application of econometric tool in verification of selected economic topics – Wagner’s

law of public expenditure – Various methods of estimation of elasticities in taxation –

Demand for money – Inflation–output trade off – Export led growth strategy hypothesis –

Inter-relationship between fertility rate, work participation rate and family planning adoption.


  Module 1: Theory of International Trade

The pure theory of international trade – Theories of absolute advantage, comparative

advantage and opportunity costs - Modern theory of international trade; Theorem of

factor price equalization; Empirical testing of theory of absolute cost and comparative

cost – Heckscher-Ohlin theory of trade - Kravis and Linder theory of trade; Role of

dynamic factors, i.e., changes in tastes, technology and factor endowments in explaining

the emergence of trade; The Rybczynski theorem – Concept and policy implications of

immiserizing growth; Causes of emergence and measurement of intra-industry trade and

its impact on developing economies.

Module 2: Measurement of Gains and Theory of Interventions

Measurement of gains from trade and their distribution; Concepts of terms of trade, their

uses and limitations; Hypothesis of secular deterioration of terms of trade, its empirical

relevance and policy implications for less developed countries; Trade as an engine of

economic growth; Welfare implications – Empirical evidence and policy issues; Theory

of interventions (Tariffs, Quotas and Non Tariff Barriers); Economic effects of tariffs and

quotas on national income, output, employment, terms of trade, income distribution;

Balance of payments on trading partners both in partial and general equilibrium analysis;

The political economy of non-tariff barriers and their implications; Nominal, effective

and optimum rates of tariffs – their measurement, impact and welfare implications; Trade

under imperfectly competitive market.

Module 3: Balance of Payments

Meaning and components of balance of payments; Equilibrium and disequilibrium in the

balance of payments; Process of adjustment under systems of gold standard, fixed

exchange rates and flexible exchange rates; Expenditure-reducing and expenditureswitching policies and direct controls for adjustment; Policies for achieving internal and

external equilibrium simultaneously under alternative exchange rate regimes; A critical

review of the monetary approach to the theory of balance of payments adjustment;

Foreign trade multiplier with and without foreign repercussions and determination of

national income and output; Relative merits and demerits of fixed and flexible exchange

rates in the context of growth and development in developing countries.

Module 4: The theory of Regional Blocks

Forms of economic cooperation; Reforms for the emergence of trading blocks at the

global level; Static and dynamic effects of a customs union and free trade areas;

Rationale and economic progress of SAARC/SAPTA and ASEAN regions; Problems

and prospects of forming a customs union in the Asian region; European Union; Rise

and fall of gold standard and Bretton-Woods system; Need, adequacy and determinants

of international reserves; Conditionality clause of IMF; International Monetary System;

India and developing countries; Theory of short-term capital movements and East Asian

crisis; Functions of GATT/WTO (TRIPS/TRIMS), UNCTAD, IMF, World Bank and

Asian Development Bank – Their achievements and failures.

Module 5: Trade policies in India

Trade problems and trade policies in India during the last five decades; Recent changes in

the direction and composition of trade and their implications; Rationale and impact of

trade reforms since 1991 on balance of payments, employment and growth. Problems of

India’s international debt; Working and regulations of MNCs in India; Instruments of

export promotion and recent import and export policies and agenda for future.


Module 1: Rationale for Public Policy

Allocation of resources – Provision of public goods; Voluntary exchange models; Impossibility of

decentralized provision of public goods (contributions of Samuelson and Musgrave); Demand

revealing schemes for public goods – Tiebout model, theory of club goods; Stabilization Policy –

Keynesian case of stabilization policy; Uncertainty and expectations; Failure of inter temporal

markets; Liquidity preference; Social goals; Poverty alleviation; Provision of infrastructural

facilities, removing distributional inequalities and regional imbalances.

Module 2: Public Expenditure

Wagner’s law of increasing state activities; Wiseman-Peacock hypothesis; Pure theory of

public expenditure; Structure and growth of public expenditure; Criteria for public investment;

Social cost-benefit analysis – Project evaluation; Estimation of costs, discount rate; Reforms in

expenditure budgeting; Programme budgeting and Zero base budgeting.

Module 3: Taxation

Theory of incidence; Alternative concepts of incidence – Allocative and equity aspects of individual

taxes; Benefit and ability to pay approaches; Theory of optimal taxation; Excess burden of taxes;

Trade-off between equity and efficiency; Theory of measurement of dead weight losses; The

problem of double taxation.

Module 4: Public Debt

Classical view of public debt; Compensatory aspect of debt policy; Burden of public debt; Sources of

public debt; Debt through created money; Public borrowings and price level; Crowding out of

private investment and activity; Principles of debt management and repayment.

Module 5: Fiscal Policy

Objectives of fiscal policy – full employment, anti-inflation, economic growth, redistribution of

income and wealth; Interdependence of fiscal and monetary policies; Budgetary deficit and its

implications; Fiscal policy for stabilization – Automatic vs discretionary stabilization; Alternative

measures of resource mobilization and their impact on growth, distribution and prices; Balanced

budget multiplier.

Module 6: Fiscal Federalizm

Principles of multi-unit finance; Fiscal federalism in India; Vertical and horizontal imbalances;

Assignment of function and sources of revenue; Constitutional provisions; Finance Commission;

Devolution of resources and grants; Theory of grants; Resource transfer from Union to States –

Criteria for transfer of resources; Centre-State financial relations in India; Problems of

states’resources and indebtedness; Transfer of resources from Union and States to local bodies.


 Module 1 :

Infrastructure and economic development – Infrastructure as a public good; Social and

physical infrastructure; Special characteristics of public utilities. The peak load, Off load

problem; Dual principle controversy; Economies of scale of joint supply; Marginal cost

pricing vs. other methods of pricing in public utilities; Cross subsidization – free prices,

equity and efficiency.

Module 2 :

The structure of transport costs and location of economic activities; Demand for

transport – Models of freight and passenger demand; Model choice; Cost functions in the

transport sector; Principle of pricing; Special problems of individuals modes of transport;

Inter-model condition in the Indian situation.

Module 3 :

Rate making in telephone utilities; Principles of decreasing costs in telephone industry –

Characteristics of postal services; Criteria for fixation of postal rates; Measurement of

standards of service in telephone and postal utilities.

Module 4 :

Primacy of energy in the process of economic development; Factors determining demand

for energy; Effects of energy shortages; Energy conservation, renewable and nonconventional sources of energy; Energy modeling; The search for an optimal energy

policy in the Indian context.

Module 5 :

Bulk supply and pricing of electricity – The relative economics of thermal, hydel and

nuclear power plants – The case for a National Power Grid, financing water utilities -

Urban and rural water supply; The exploitation of National Gas; Pricing problem.

Module 6 :

Organisation and financing of supply of social services; Private vs public sector

financing; Recent debate about the fixation of prices of social services; Development of

social services in the successive Indian plans.

Module 7 :

Education and economic growth; Approaches to educational planning, social demand,

rate of return and manpower balance approaches; The case for universal, free, primary

education; Structure of higher education and problems of its financing in India; Human

resources and human capital development – The issues in education policy; Health

dimensions of development - Determinants of health – Poverty, malnutrition, illiteracy

and lack of information, Economic dimensions of health care – Demand and supply of

health care, Financing of health care and resource constraints - Inequalities in health –

Class and gender perspectives; Institutional issues in health care delivery.

Thursday, September 29, 2022


1. Introduction 

The Investment Environment, Financial Instruments, The Securities Trading – Market &


2. Security Analysis: 

Macroeconomic and Industry analysis, equity Valuation Models, Company analysis,

Brief Overview of Technical Analysis (Charts, Line Charts, Line & Volume, Charts, Point

&Figure Charts, Bar Chart, Candlestick Chart, Various Patterns, Dow Theory & Elliot

wave Theory).

3. Portfolio Theory: 

Concepts of Risk & Return, Diversification of Risk, Optimum Portfolio Selection Problem

- Markowitz Portfolio Theory - Mean Variance Criteria (MVC) - MVC and Portfolio

Selection - Portfolio Selection.

4. Equilibrium in Capital Markets: 

The Capital Asset Pricing Model, Index Models, Arbitrage Pricing Theory and Multifactor

Models of Risk and Return, Market Efficiency and Behavioral Finance, Empirical

Evidence on Security Returns.

5. Bond Portfolio Management : 

Bond Prices and Yields, the Term structure of Interest Rates, Managing Bond Portfolios.

6. Active Portfolio Management: 

Portfolio Performance Evaluation, International Diversification, The Process of Portfolio

Management, The Theory of Active Portfolio Management.


 Managing Banks and Financial Institutions

1. Bank and Banking: 

Permissible banking activities – Types of banks in India – Role of RBI as a regulator –

Money Market Instruments- Concept of NPA and Prudential Norms.

2. The Insurance Service 

Need and importance Life and non-life insurance-Players in life and non-life insurance –

Essentials of insurance contracts – Risk appraisal and selection – Life and non-life

insurance products including unit linked plans – Role of IRDA.

3. Merchant Banking: 

SEBI guidelines for merchant bankers (basic ideas) – Issue Management – Equity

issues – Rights issues – Debenture Issues – Book building – Private Placements – Pre &

Post issues activities – Raising capital from International markets: ADRs, GDRs, ECB

etc. (Basic concepts).

4. Lease and Hire purchase: 

Meaning and Types of leasing – Legislative frameworks – Matters on Depreciation and

Tax – Problems on leasing – Hire Purchasing – Concepts and features – Tax and

Depreciation implications – Problems on Hire Purchasing.

5. Credit Rating : 

Definition and meaning – Process of credit rating of financial instruments-Rating

methodology-Rating agencies-Rating Symbols of different companies- Role of SEBI.

6. Mutual Funds: 

Concept - Types - Nature – NAV – Trends in Indian Mutual Fund Market -Regulatory

Framework and Role of SEBI.

7. Other Financial Institutions:

NBFC- Public Financial Institutions- Foreign Institutional Investors

8. Global Banking- Basel Norms:

Recent Trends

Tuesday, September 27, 2022


 Unit-I Introduction: International Trade, Its Importance, Theories of International Trade- Theory Comparative Costs, Classical Theory,

Absolute Advantage, Hecksher-Ohlin Theory, Free Trade V/S Protection ,Barriers To Foreign Trade, Tariff And Non-Tariff Barriers.

Unit-II Balance of Payment : Meaning Of BOP, Components Of BOP, Importance

Of BOP, Meaning Of Deficit And Surplus, Equilibrium, Disequilibrium And Adjustments, Methods Of Correcting Disequilibrium, Accounting Principles In BOP.

Unit-III Foreign Exchange Markets: Defining Foreign Exchange Market, Its Structure, Settlement System, Exchange Rate, Participants, Understanding SPOT And Forward Rates, Foreign Exchange Quotations,Premium And Discount In Forward Market, Cross Rates, Inverse Rates And Arbitrage.

Unit-IV Exchange Rate Determination: Determination Under Gold Standard And Paper Standard, Factors Affecting Exchange Rates, Purchasing Power Parity Theory, Demand And Supply Theory, Equilibrium Rate Of Exchange, Fluctuating V/S Fixed Exchange Rates, Exchange Control,Objectives Of Exchange Control

Unit-V Instruments: ADR, GDR, Euro Currencies, International Commercial Papers.

Unit-VI International Financial Institutions: Introduction To IMF, Its Importance,Functions and Significance.


 Unit 1: Concept and terms of income tax: Person, Assessee, Previous year, Assessment year,Income, Casual Income, Gross Total Income, Total Income, Agricultural Income, Exempted Incomes. 

Residential Status: Rules for determining residential status of Individual, HUF, Firm and Company, determination of residential status, Incidence of tax and residential status,computation of gross total income on the basis of residential status. Practical problems.

Unit II: Income from Salary: Salary, Allowances, perquisites and retirement benefits,deductions. Practical problems.

Unit III: Income from House Property: Annual Value, let out property, self occupied properties, deductions, computation of income from house property. Practical problems.

Unit IV: Income from Business: Depreciation and other permissible deductions, disallowable expenses, income and expenses of illegal business, computation of Business income.

Income from Profession: Computation of Doctors, Lawyers, Chartered Accountants, Civil Engineers, Practical problems.

Unit V: Introduction to GST: Definition of GST, Meaning, Need for Introduction of GST,Different Models of GST, Goods and Services Exempted from GST, Registration Process,Taxable Events, Assessee’s Liable to Pay GST (Theory only).

Skill Development Activities:

1. Prepare a list of taxes levied by local authorities in your local area/city.

2. Determination of term “salary” for different purposes, like calculation of HRA,

accommodation facility, etc.

3. Collect salary slip, (pay slip) from an employee of an organization.

4. Filing of Tax return 



Introduction and key aspects of Technology Management,,Sources and types of Technology,Changing context of Technology Management,Critical factors in managing Technology.


Need assessment of Technology,Industrial analysisand technology planning,Technology choice and life-cycle,Technology acquisition and utilization,Technology forecasting.


Organizational implications of Technology,Financial aspects in Technology Management,Social issues in Technology Management,Technological change and Industrial Relations


Technologial Assessment and Environmental Impact Assessment, Human aspects in Technological Management,Tecnology transfer: Licencing, Joint Venture and Alliance.

Friday, September 23, 2022





 UNIT – 1

Introduction: Capital investments, types of capital investments, Phases of capital

budgeting, objectives of capital budgeting, common weakness in capital budgeting.

Generation and screening of project ideas: Tools to identify investment opportunities,

scouting for project ideas project rating index.

UNIT – 2

Market and demand analysis, technical analysis, cost of project means of finance, cost of

production, working capital requirement and its analysis. Time value for money, investment

criteria- NPV, IPR, Benefit Cost Ratio, Payback period, Project cash flow. Balance sheet and

Budgetary control.

UNIT - 3

Risk analysis: Sources measures and perspectives of Risk, discussion on different methods

of Risk analysis, like sensitivity analysis, scenario analysis, break-even analysis and

decision tree analysis. Social Cost Benefit Analysis: rationale for SCABA, UNIDO

approach, Little-Mirrles‘s approach, shadow pricing, public sectors investment decision in


UNIT – 4

Project organizations: Types of project organizations structure for project management,

Human aspects in project Management. Networks Techniques in Project Management:

Development of project network, time estimation, determination of critical path. PERT Model

and CPM model. Network cost system.

UNIT – 5

Project review and administrative aspects, control of in-process projects, post completion

audit Atonement Analysis. Discussion of case studies in project management.

Friday, September 16, 2022


 1. Introduction to Service Operations Management: Servitization, strategic vision of


2. Designing service processes: Fit between service processes and competitive strategy

3. Capacity and queue management I: Matching supply with demand, queueing theory

4. Capacity and queue management II: Application of queue management in services

5. Managing innovation: Deriving value from operational strength and efficiency

6. Managing expansion: Capacity planning and interplay of capacity with other corporate


7. Outsourcing services: To analyze risks and benefits of outsourcing service to clients

8. User centered design: Concept of user-centered design of service as opposed to

traditional market research and design

9. Customer participation: Managing operating role of customers and the opportunities

10. Customer economics and retention: Understanding customer economics and defining

customer acquisition and retention strategies

11. Revenue management I: Introduction to revenue management and practice in services


12. Revenue management II: Pricing and application to airlines industry

13. Employee management Process of developing workforce capability in hotel business


 ERP-Introduction; Advantages; ERP and Business – value creation; Integrated Information

Management; Enterprise and ERP, Business modeling; Integrated data model . To ERP or

not to ERP – Strategic Options; Benefits of ERP: Quantifiable, Intangible; P&G; Risks:

People, process, Technology, Implementation, Operational and Managerial

risks.IIntroduction to ERP related technologies; Functional modules of ERP software.;

Implementation of ERP: Life cycle; Implementation methodologies, transition

strategies;People involved in implementation; Success and failure in implementation –

factors. Operation and Maintenance of an ERP system.;

Thursday, September 15, 2022


 These three places in Uttara Kannada district of Karnataka state was always a matter of confusion for me and I decided to solve this confusion by visiting these places myself. I have travelled upto Murdeshwar and was curious about what lay ahead. I take a holiday once in six months a very short stint at some place of interest.

I called up a hotel in Gokarna almost got an instant hotel reservation and was worried about the weather but forecasts for the weather were not bad and I decided to make my short spurt and found a VOLVO bus almost ready for departure at the Majestic bus stand and got into it. I was told the bus would traverse through Shimoga, Sagar, Siddapura ,Sirsi, Kumta to Gokarna.

After some time I occupied the special seat adjacent to the driver and was chatting with him  till Shimoga and I thought it time to take a nap and almost early morning woke up at Sirsi and thereafter went back to the seat beside the driver for the rest of the journey through what is called a State Highway 69. I was wearing an NIT Calicut jacket which protected me from the cold in these areas. From Sirsi through narrow roads laced with rivers and rivulets and almost meagre sign of population around I was chatting with the driver who was manning the bus through a road rid with pot-holes  through this entire stretch. These VOVO buses have to praised for its speed ,ease of control and its ability to withstand very bad road conditions. Some seventy kilometres from Sirsi the bus intercepts the ARABIAN COASTAL ROAD a road that for all practical purposes runs alongside the Arabian Sea coast sometimes almost touching the sea and at times distancing itself from the sea. At many places it is four lane.

At Kumta I had breakfast at the hotel in the bus stand and thereafter the bus proceeds to Gokarna. Note a very important point. From Sirsi to Gokarna it is not mandatory to be at Kumta. You can directly go to Gokarna by turning right at the Junction on the ACR(Arabian Coastal Road). KSRTC buses come to Kumta as a matter of procedure set in the rules.

From Kumta the bus proceeds to Gokarna. Some kilometres ahead the bus leaves the highway and turns left into a road which resembles a simple city road some ten feet in width and bus travels through river beds and some twenty kilometers ahead is Gokarna. Gokarna has the Mahabaleshwar temple dedicated to Lord Shiva.

Gokarna  Beach

Every thing said and done I liked this place called Gokarna. Friendly people with excellent eat outs all around. I had a stroll down the road to the Mahabaleshwar temple and down the road is the beach. The beach at Gokarna is small may be some hundred meters in all with very attractive surroundings.

Something about these places Kumta, Sirsi and Gokarna. SIRSI is not a coastal town but a place like Madikeri or Sringeri in the bosom of the Western Ghat mountains some seventy kilometers from the Arabian coast. KUMTA is a city on the Arabian coast on the Arabian Coastal Road some sixty kilometres north of Bhatkal and Murudeshwar.

What is GOKARNA ? Gokarna is a temple town adjacent to the Arabian sea some twenty five kilometers from the Arabian Coastal Road and some  say forty kilometers from Kumta. These distances I mention may not be perfectly accurate but roughly so. GOKARNA is on the Arabian sea beach. Sirsi  is a town on the Western Ghat mountains...Kumta is town like Kundapur close to the sea and adjacent to the Arabian Coastal Road.

Saturday, September 10, 2022



1. Understanding International Business Operations: 

Cross-Cultural and HRM issues in International Business Operations –Differences between

Domestic & International HRM–Culture and International HRM: Different models, Impact of culture on IHRM.

2. International Recruitment and Selection: Important issues: 

Expatriate Selection and Selection Criteria–Training and Development vis-à-vis International HRM

–Expatriate training: Important Issues and Concerns.

3. Performance Management: Issues and Concerns in International HRM: 

Standards for performance appraisal of International employees–appraisal of HCNs — Employee

Reward in International HRM—Objectives of and Approaches to Employee Reward in International

HRM –Key Components of a compensation program–International evidence on best practices in


4. Employment Relations and Communications in International HRM: 

Trade unions and Employment Relations in International context– Flexibility and work-life balance in International context.

5. Managing Diversity and Cross-cultural issues in International context: 

Managing Diversity in International Perspective–Cross-cultural issues in Merger and Acquisition

and other strategic issues.

 6. Cross cultural and International HRM trends and future challenges: 

 Global cross-cultural and knowledge management strategies



1. Human Resource Development: 

Meaning, Scope and Purpose, HRD Process, Techniques of Assessment of HRD Needs –

Organizational Analysis, Task Analysis, Individual Analysis.

2. Strategies of HRD: 

Organizational Development, Individual Development, Team Development, Organizational Culture


3. Individual Development through Training: 

Designing Training Programme; On-the-Job, Off-the-Job; Methods –Lecture, Case Analysis, Role

Play, Games, Exercises; Role of Trainer, MDPs, Out-Bound Training.

4. Evaluation of Training: 

Need, Principles, Criteria, Technique of Evaluation, Impediments to Effective Training, Improving

Effectiveness of Training.

5. Individual Development through Non – Training: 

Job Redesign Programme; Job Enlargement, Job Enrichment, Job Rotation, Suggestion Schemes,

Career Planning, Counselling.

6. Team Development Programmes: 

Methods and Schemes: Role of Staff and Line Managers in HRD, Quality Circle, Kaizen,

Autonomous Small Group Activities.

7. Competency Management: 

Planning, Mapping, Measurement.

8. HRD Experiments and Cases: 

In India and Other Countries



1. Basics in HR Planning : 

Macro Level Scenario of HRP, Concepts and Process of HRP, Consideration Technology, Finance,Product Demand.

2. Methods and Techniques: 

Demand Forecasting: Managerial Estimates, Trend Analysis, Utilization Analysis: Work Study, Job Analysis, Supply Forecasting: Inventory Analysis, Wastage Analysis, Markov Analysis, Balancing Supply & Demand, Issues of Shortage and Surplus.

3. Human Resource Information System (HRIS) : 

Concept and Procedures.

4. Strategic HRP : 

Planning, Tools and Evaluation.

5. Job Analysis & Job Evaluation : 

 Job Analysis - Concepts, Process, Job Description, Job Specification, Uses, Limitations; Job

Evaluations – Concepts, Methods, Limitations

6. Measurements of HR Planning: 

 HR Audit, HR Accounting

7. HR Plan: 

 Implementation Strategies – Recruitment, Redeployment, Redundancy, Retention, Productivity

Plan, Training Plan, Career Plan, Succession Plan, Compensation Plan.

8. Case Studies on HR Planning

Wednesday, September 7, 2022


1. Introduction to Strategic HRM: 

Definition, Need and Importance, Introduction to business and corporate strategies,

Integrating HR strategies with business strategies, Developing HR plans and policies.

2. Human Resource Environment: 

Technology and structure, Workforce diversity, Demographic changes, Temporary Contract

Labour, Global Environment, Global Competition, Global sourcing of labour, WTO and labour


3. Recruitment and Retention Strategies: 

Online recruitment, Employee referrals, Recruitment process outsourcing, Headhunting,

Executive education, Flexi timing, Telecommuting, Quality of work life, Work – life balance,

Employee empowerment, Employee involvement, Autonomous work teams.

4. Training and Development Strategies: 

Creating learning organization, Competency mapping, Multiskilling, Succession planning,

Cross cultural training.

5. Performance Management strategies: 

Defining key result areas (KRA) - Result based performance, Linking performance to pay,

Merit based promotions.

6. Reward and Compensation Strategies: 

Performance based pay, Skill based pay - Team based pay, Broad banding Profit sharing,

Executive compensation, Variable pay.

7. Retrenchment strategies: 

Downsizing, Voluntary retirement schemes (VRS), HR Outsourcing, Early retirement plans,

Project based employment.

8. Human Aspects of Strategy implementation: 

Behavioural issues in strategic implementation, Matching culture with strategy, Human side

of mergers and acquisitions, Leadership, power and politics, Employee morale, Personal

values and business ethics.

9. Global HR Strategies: 

Introduction to global HR strategies, Developing HR as a value added function.

Monday, September 5, 2022



The above is the portrait of Mr. D R Karthikeyan who used to be the Commissioner of Bangalore Police.This man had a special connection with ITI and appears to me was a close friend of C S S Rao the then CMD of ITI. Many times he used to come to inaugurate the ITI Flood -lit Tournament some times dressed in a Safari suit.He was a pet of CM Gundu Rao they say and shot into prominence as head of the SIT that investigated the Assassination of Shri Rajiv Gandhi and did a good job co-ordinating various domains.  


 Unit-I Introduction to retailing: Definition and scope, evolution of

retailing, types of retail, trends in retailing industry, benefits of

retailing, retailing environment.

Unit-II Retail purchasing and pricing:

Purchase management:- Merchandise purchasing, open to buy,

open to buy planning, analyzing the merchandise performance,

Pricing strategies:-every day pricing, competitive based pricing,

price skimming, market-oriented pricing, marginal cost pricing.

Retail price strategies: - mark-up pricing, vendor pricing,

competitive pricing, psychological pricing.

Unit-III Retail marketing and promotion: Nature and scope:-relationship

marketing, market strategies, retail research Understanding the

retail customer:- retail market, population analysis, demographic

analysis, consumer behavior Retail promotion Mix: - Retail

promotion programme, retail advertising media, promotional

budget. Customer services: - customer services, services quality

gaps, service recovery.

Unit-IV Information system in retailing: Acquiring and using

information strategies, technology in retail, information sources,

retail information system.

Unit-V Retailing in India: Evolution and trends in organised retailing,

Indian organised retail market, FDI in Indian organised retail

sector, retail scenario in India, future trends of retail in India.

Unit-VI Ethical and legal issues in Retailing: Dealing with ethical issues,

social responsibility, environmental orientation, waste reduction at

retail stores.

Friday, September 2, 2022



Consumer Behaviour and Marketing Action - An overview - Consumer involvement - Decision-making processes - Purchase Behaviour and Marketing Implications - Consumer Behaviour Models


Environmental influences on Consumer Behaviour - Cultural influences - Social class - Reference groups and family influences - Opinion leadership and the diffusion of innovations - Marketing implications of the above influences.


Consumer buying behaviour - Marketing implications - Consumer perceptions – Learning and attitudes - Motivation and personality – Psychographics - Values and Lifestyles, Click-o- graphic.


Strategic marketing applications - Market segmentation strategies - Positioning strategies for existing and new products, Re-positioning, Perceptual Mapping - Marketing communication - Store choice and shopping behaviour - In-Store stimuli, store image and loyalty - Consumerism - Consumer rights and Marketers' responsibilities.


The Global Consumer Behaviour and Online buying behaviour - Consumer buying habits and perceptions of emerging non-store choices - Research and applications of consumer responses to direct marketing approaches - Issues of privacy and ethics.


 1. Services Marketing- An Insight into Emerging Sector of Economy Introduction, Nature & Definition of Services, Difference between goods & Services: Service-Continuum, Key classifications of the Services, Service Characteristics; Traditional elementsof  Services   Mix;   Need   for  extended marketing  mix   elements in Services.   Need   to  studyService Marketing: Evolution of Services as Value Contributors, Service Sector beyond 2020 -Indian, Asian & Global perspectives 

2. Role of Process, People& Physical Evidence in Services Marketing: Process - Service system - Service system, Servicescape and Servuction system, Importanceof Process in Services; Service Blueprint;  Mapping the  Process- Horizontally  & Vertically;Variety in Service Process; Value addition in Process. People- The Key to a Service Marketing;People Dimensions in Services Marketing; Service Encounters; HighContact & Low-ContactServices;   Emotions   in   Service   Situations;   Service   Profit   Chain;   Service   Culture   PhysicalEvidence- Contribution of Physical  Evidence to the  Service  Understanding,  Managing thePhysical Evidence in Service Marketing 

3. Managing Consumer Behaviour& Service Quality: Consumer   and   Organisational   Behaviour   in   Services   –   Understanding   Our   Customers   &Collaborators   in   services,   stages   of   service   consumption   Service   Quality-   Levels   &Dimensions; Service  Quality  Models  - ServQual,  GAP  Model and  Critical Incident Model.Managing   demand   and   capacity   -   capacity  constraints,  understanding   demand   patterns,strategies   for   matching   and   adjusting   capacity   and   demand   Service   Recovery,   ServiceRecovery Process, Impact of Service Failures, Nature of Complaining Behaviour-ComplaintResolution.

 4. Segmentation, Targeting & Positioning of Services in Modern Era: Bases for Segmentation of Services; Selecting Target Market & Approaches; Techniques ofPositioning  Services.  Managing   of   Relationships   in   Services   Marketing,   service   marketingtriangle,   Current   customer   retention   and   customer   lifetime   value.   Service   MarketingStrategies for Small and Medium Enterprises: Importance & Challenges. 

 5. Marketing of Services: New   Paradigm   and   Perspectives:   Customer   as   the   Centre   of   Attention;   Services   as   KeyDifferentiators; New Service Opportunities: Emergence of Work from Home, Automation &New   Technologies   in   Services;   Service   Marketing   Opportunities   in   India   Applications   ofService Marketing:  Marketing  in Tourism, Retail, Hospitality,   Airlines, Telecom, IT   & ITES,Sports & Entertainment, Logistics, Health Care Sector, Event Management Services and Banks& Financial Sector, NonProfit Organisations.