Power System Analysis is an important component of Electrical Engineering and in the modern day an increasingly complex activity with changes noticed in Generation and distribution of Electric Power.The field of Power System Analysis converges conventional Electrical Engineering with Power Electronics and Information system platforms.
In the seventh semester we had a course on Power System Analysis and it would be better if practitioners in this field also get an opportunity to share experiences and insight to the recepients.The entire area of Power Systems is fairly well managed in a country like India which has more than a century of experience in generation and distribution of Electrical Power. Two problems beset the area of Power system Analysis. The first component is to match the increasing demand for power. The second is to ensure quality of Power, the third function is to ensure reduction in wastage and finally to keep the system from breakdowns and other disruptions.
At a global level Power System Analysis is to address the economics of Power. Basically matching the supply and demand at a rational price ,this is a problem at engulfs humanity and such a domain would invariably involve the import and export of Power. It would also involve domestication of Power which means effective local generation and distribution of Power over very short distances.. for instance the use of Solar power. One of the major components of Power consumption in the future would be that Automobiles of all kinds might work on Batteries which need periodic charging.
Maintaining the Quality of Power is another component of PSA(Power System Analysis)..in an AC system ensuring the correct Voltage, Frequency and Power Factor. This is where computerization is going to make in-roads. I think to a very large extent PSA as we see today is in a very nascent condition with no real-time assessment of Power though we have progressed in this field in leap and bounds. Add to this the study of transients. Effects of lightning and all other forms of environmental disturbances on Electrical Power Systems. PSA of this kind is carried out through a DAS(Data Acquisition System);a low voltage system properly insulated taps EPI(Electrical Power Information) from various points and feeds it into a central computer device which registers Voltage, Frequency, Power factor and transients. Any abnormality anywhere can be instantly noticed for corrective action. DAS helps in the proper management of Power System factors.DAS needs complex parallel wiring and care and a central control station with reporting systems almost on a daily basis.
DAS mentioned above also helps in tracking wastage largely by controlling Power Factor in large industrial installations and tracking wastage of power by domestic installations. The Power Factor is studied periodically at large power distribution zones to bring it into acceptable levels even by restructuring the load if necessary. Domestic wastage of power is also a source of power wastage which can be tracked even at a minute level by such systems.
Break down and disruptions need constant analysis and improvement. Trees falling on Power Lines resulting in Short Circuit is one of major causes of disruptions and add to that other sources like over load , tripping of breakers and single phasing and even birds creating short circuit by grounding high tension lines. Zones where such things happen are normally identified and acted upon and underground cables with proper notifications laid.
The above is the scope of PSA and to my observation has to be done more aggressively and at the same time the depth of the analysis also augmented that we know in the future..What problem is likely to happen and plan very much in advance all forms of corrective actions both complex and simple.