Measurement of flow is a very important part of the study of Fluid Mechanics.There are various kinds of fluids and flows ,but for relatively non-turbulent flows an Orifice Meter or a Venturi meter is used. It is the same principle used in Sphygmo-manometers used by doctors to measure blood pressure.
Orifice meters use deliberately created pressure difference to measure flow. Orifice or a small circular congestion is created within the flow conduit.As flow counters this congestion pressure on the flow side will increase and the pressure after the orifice will decrease and this difference in pressure measured by a Manometer gives an index of flow.The congestion created by a Orifice Meter is high blocking flow itself and in such cases a venturimeter is used. Venturi is some form of two inverted conical structures which creates a pressure difference but at the same time does not inhibit flow.
Pressure drop from the edge of the cone to the centre of the device is measured to establish flow.
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